I met a neurologist today who is working with something called Open Brain Computer Interface.
I had to Google that because what it meant to me was "Open Source Brain Computer Interface". Turns out, my interpretation was exactly what it is. I was kinda shocked because, well, that's the world of neurologists and here there are people who want you and I to be involved. You can find the source on GitHub. And you can buy your own kit to experiment with. OpenBCI's home is here.
The neurologist I met is working on ways to better control seizures. Others are working on control over prosthetic devices. Still others are working on ways to improve the lives of patients with ALS or other paralyzing disease.
Some of the challenges with control include measuring neurons firing at different rates, positioning of sensors in the brain (not included in the Pro Kit :)) and even the spacing of neurons.
It's amazing to me that scientists are putting things like this out there for people to work with and it's pretty cool to see what's come from the work and imagine what will come for those who've lost the ability to use a limb or become paralyzed through some spinal cord injury.