Cake
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    • Homicide rates have significantly declined in Western Europe with the rise of the modern state. England has been among the lowest.

    • Safe is always a relative term, especially when statistics are the only criteria. It is quite possible to still be safe in very unsafe areas if following some common sense rules related to timing and behavior. What cracks me up allot of time are opinions that carrying a weapon makes one safer.

    • I wonder how they compiled that data? There were no police forces. Germany and Italy weren't countries. The 100 Years' War had the size of France in a state of flux.

    • Good question--I wondered about that as well. I found the graph in the Our World in Data website, which I first learned about from Steven Pinker. These specific historical data come from a 2003 paper from Cambridge by Manuel Eisner, Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime, which is 60 pages long and highly detailed. Eisner is also the creator of the map in the OP. Here's a brief summary from OWID:

      For earlier historical periods, researchers have reconstructed the
      long-term changes in homicide rates from historical records that often
      originated from some form of legal documentation of the crimes. Although
      there are gaps in the reconstructed data, and there are uncertainties
      in both the number of homicides and the size of the population, the
      historical record is more complete than one might assume. One reason for
      this is the great social importance of these crimes. Violent killings
      were of concern for a long time, and they were therefore often reliably
      registered. In some cases, or for prehistoric times, it is additionally
      possible to use the insights from forensic archaeologists, who can
      determine the causes of death from skeletal remains.

      That doesn't answer all of your questions, but I think you'll find most of them addressed in the paper itself.

    • Did you know if you whistle to your horse after it is stolen but within distance it will buck the thief.

      I would reply to apm but he blocks me from his threads so I imagine he doesn't want to hear it here either , and deletes my reactions.

      interesting....

    You've been invited!