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    • In Malaysia we have this legal system where a sub-population of the country - namely the Malay population - has special privileges due to their race. This is part of the constitution, and so it's pretty much set in stone.

      I won't get into too many details, but basically what this means is that Malays (and natives of East Malaysia) are awarded special privileges in many sectors, often at the expense of non-Malays (Chinese and Indian citizens). This practice is institutionalised to the point where filling in official forms for any purpose, healthcare, education, financing, business etc., requires you to state your race. One example is scholarships and placements in public universities, where some scholarships are only open to Malays, and public universities enrol students to fulfil a racial quota (often giving more placements to Malay students). Malay citizens also enjoy discounts when purchasing real estate, while non-Malays have to pay more to purchase the exact same property. There are other examples as well, but you get the point.

      Is there anywhere else in the world where political systems favour one race over another? I could Google it, but I value the input and conversations on Cake.

    • Is there anywhere else in the world where political systems favour one race over another?

      I've read that institutional racism against ethnic minorities and foreigners is a pretty big problem in Japan, though perhaps a bit more unspoken and less explicit than what you've described in Malaysia.

      But one thing that strikes me about your question is that I can't think of any place in the world where political systems don't favor one race over another. In some places it's just less explicit.

      In the U.S., for instance, our Constitution and many of our laws say that everyone is equal. But the reality is that for centuries white people who came to America from Europe killed and oppressed Native Americans, kidnapped black Africans and enslaved them, and were just generally huge racist jerks.

      Around 150 years ago — just a few generations! — half the country fought an incredibly bloody war with the other half of the country over the right to own slaves. It's easy to see this as being far in the past because we learn about it in History class, but it really wasn't that long ago.

      The end result of those centuries of oppression and genocide is that to be a Native American or an African American or a person in another minority group often means starting with a built-in societal disadvantage. The parents, grandparents, and great grandparents of a white American born today are more likely to be educated and economically advantaged than the parents of a non-white American because the generational effects of centuries of oppression are still rippling through American society.

      I think if you look almost anywhere in the world, you'll see similar patterns.

    • Race based affirmative action does not work, the solution has to be merit based.

      Quotas or subsidies for the disadvantaged to help improve their entry levels into higher education is probably the best way, to right some of the wrongs of the past.

    • Quotas or subsidies for the disadvantaged to help improve their entry levels into higher education is probably the best way, to right some of the wrongs of the past.

      If I'm not mistaken, this is why Malaysia has this policy of "Malay rights", to give them an advantage over the other races. The problem is, Malays are not "disadvantaged", and because of these "rights", they end up with an easier path in life than our non-Malay citizens. Malays can get into university with average results and still get scholarships, while non-Malay citizens with better results won't be granted the same opportunities.

    • The education idea I was mentioning was in the context of world wide affirmative action, not specifically Malaysia, I should have made that clearer.

      The Malaysian system is not fair and is always a source of heated discussion amongst the non Malay citizens, especially in relation to the Malay reserve land law.

      Affirmative action exists in other countries to some extent, the best example is probably South Africa, they have had two forms, pre and post apartheid.

      You are correct, in modern Malaysia the Malays are not disadvantaged. With the Malays being over 65% of the population I don't see change coming anytime soon.

    • There are some countries with large non-citizen populations and very different systems in place for citizens. The UAE comes to mind, where Emirati citizens have education, a safety net, and I believe guaranteed employment, and a culture somewhat apart from the more than 80% of their population made up of expats and migrant workers. It isn't racial, per se, but it is a form of nativism.

    • While the West has gone through societal and cultural battles with trying to solve the problems of racism/classism and various discrimination -- especially those who adopted "melting pot" societies -- we still don't have a SOLUTION for racism and discrimination.

      The East doesn't, either.

      In the USA, our Founders couldn't solve the slavery problem (and even over 100 years later).

      Presidents James Madison and Thomas Jefferson knew slavery was evil, and wanted to resolve that suffering then. They designed a magnificent Constitution as guranteed freedoms earlier, but the societal and cultural impact of setting slaves free -- who were no longer Africans and only knew America as their home -- they had no other idea to solve it, and shelved the idea.

      Compromise of 1850, was just another patchwork fix to the unsolved slavery question.

      Civil War came, and Lincoln wanted to do what Monroe and Jefferson decided wasn't the ideal solution: exporting freed slaves to Liberia, as a necessary evil. Because Black people could not find justice in a racist America. Everyone knew it.

      Reconstruction after the Civil War our country tried to reform the South by giving emancipated slaves a hand up in life, to acculturate them into the White man's world.

      President Rutherford B. Hayes (a Republican) betrayed all the work the Lincoln administration tried to reform though, by making a deal with Southerners (who mostly were Democrats) to end Reconstruction in exchange for their votes for being president. Reconstruction ended promptly in 1877, a year after Hayes was in office.

      Jim Crow laws and other racial discrimination/immigration laws would follow. Again encoded in our laws to keep and maintain the status quo for one race AND gender.

      Jump to the 1960s and it's New Civil War and all the legislation and education about discrimination being evil and wrong. People died again in protesting equality.

      "You came a long way, baby" was a slogan in the 1970s with women's rights groups trying to pass the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Can you imagine how the PC police would be all over the slogan for being discriminating now???

      1980s, it was felt that most of the inequality in the South was fixed by programs; laws; and education. So slowly the protections granted since the 1950s were eased.

      1990s Crack Wars showed the disparity of inner city life of outrageous unemployment; poverty and no way to rise above the muck by Blacks, especially. Meanwhile, more protections erode.

      The divided States of West and East Germany were united after the Berlin Wall crumbled.

      Former Soviet Bloc nations rebelled and committed GENOCIDE again over religious and cultural differences.

      Rwanda and it's genocide occurred (where was the UN that was specifically formed to "never again" genocide? Kafi lied and apologized AFTER all those people died).

      2001 and beyond. Voting rights are gone in the USA replaced by people like Jack Kemp who can preside over elections while even running for higher office, all to disenfranchise voters, so only Whites can be politicians and control "coloreds".

      The two German states that were reunited, but only one State was "deprogrammed" of Nazism, which created another Southern United States within their borders, waiting for an excuse to discriminate based on race, religion and national origin (Germany in the 1970s were already discriminating Turks that Germany invited over to do manual labor, like the USA welcomed Latin Americans to do). Chancellor Merkel welcoming refugees caused the now UNITED Germans to detest bringing more foreigners (of color and different national origins) within their borders.

      We have Presidents Johnson and Hayes reincarnated in office in one president eroding all self-respect for the office AND Constitutionally protected freedoms.

      Notice in all that history what is encoded and protected? Notice the slavery problem NEVER went away? Notice worldwide whatever majority in a nation will protect their self-interests?

      Education. Laws. Constitutions. Enforcement be it by laws or social norms, doesn't solve the discrimination problem. It's showing nations are built FOR protected races and classes and whatever discrimination that exist for the majority.

      Why? By nature politics is discriminatory to begin with. To elect politicians they must use scapegoats and Us vs Them mentalities to get elected (and powerful backers with money wanting favors ensures the hate and discrimination continues). Every election cycle hate and discrimination is relighted DUE TO politics and how it operates.

      So the very solution folks seek -- a political solution to end discrimination -- is the very seeds of why discrimination exists.