In Malaysia we have this legal system where a sub-population of the country - namely the Malay population - has special privileges due to their race. This is part of the constitution, and so it's pretty much set in stone.
I won't get into too many details, but basically what this means is that Malays (and natives of East Malaysia) are awarded special privileges in many sectors, often at the expense of non-Malays (Chinese and Indian citizens). This practice is institutionalised to the point where filling in official forms for any purpose, healthcare, education, financing, business etc., requires you to state your race. One example is scholarships and placements in public universities, where some scholarships are only open to Malays, and public universities enrol students to fulfil a racial quota (often giving more placements to Malay students). Malay citizens also enjoy discounts when purchasing real estate, while non-Malays have to pay more to purchase the exact same property. There are other examples as well, but you get the point.
Is there anywhere else in the world where political systems favour one race over another? I could Google it, but I value the input and conversations on Cake.