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    • Does how much money you have make a difference in how you present yourself?

      How about the ability to play the expert without being one, or as the social scientists put, to BS.

      "One caveat to consider is that the study subjects were adolescents. Though it seems a good bet to assume that personality traits developed as teens will carry over into adulthood, this study isn’t proof of that. “These 15-year-olds are most likely already thinking about applying to university or entering the labor market, both of which are points during which bulls---ing may serve as an advantage,” Shure said."

      The study focused on mathematics. “Ideally,” they wrote, “future research should try to include a greater number of fake constructs in order to maximize precision of the bulls--- scale.”

      So here is some info. The whole article is fascinating.

      "Using a data set spanning nine predominantly English-speaking countries, researchers delineated a number of key findings. First, men are much more likely than women to master the art of hyperbole, as are the wealthy relative to the poor or middle class. North Americans, meanwhile, tend to slip into this behavior more readily than English speakers in other parts of the globe. And if there were a world championship, as a true devotee might appreciate, the title would go to Canada, data show."

      But the United States does a bit better in the gender difference and wealth.

      "Interestingly, the gender gap for this trait in the United States is the smallest among the countries studied, about half the size of the gap in England. Americans are, perhaps, more egalitarian in our exaggerations than our peers across the Atlantic."


      "There’s also a significant class-based difference, with respondents from the wealthiest households showing a greater proclivity toward overstatement than those from the poorest. As with gender, however, the gap in the United States is the smallest among the countries surveyed."

      Does the USA have more bombast happening?

      "Taken as a whole, the results appear to suggest that the countries with the greatest propensity toward bombast also have the smallest variances between groups living within them. In the U.S. and Canada, for instance, there may simply be so much BS going around that everyone ends up partaking in it."

      "...the study gives reason to believe there’s a useful life skill to be had here, such as the ability to bluff your way to success. “Being able to bulls--- convincingly may be useful in certain situations (e.g. job interviews, negotiations, grant applications),” the study authors write. That would be a plausible explanation for why kids from wealthy families are more likely to adopt this behavior: they’re taking cues from their successful parents."

      "The study also suggests that men’s higher propensity toward this behavior “could help them earn higher wages and explain some of the gender wage gap,” said study co-author Nikki Shure. “This has important implications for thinking about tasks in job interviews and how to evaluate performance.”

    • I have only anecdotes to share, but here's a few:

      1. New York Times reporter Amy Chozick wrote a book about Hillary's campaign, which she had covered. She said she told Hillary, "voters go for charismatic men who over-promise and bluff, not women who talk policies and try to be truthful."

      2. I've known a few rich men who made it on their own. They are smart as Hell, aggressive beyond belief, and the planets aligned for them. Jeff Bezos, Steve Jobs, Scott Cook.

      3. I've known several men & women who bluffed their way up ladders in corporations and the LDS church and damn it's depressing how little they know.