I think one of the difficult things with something like this is that we are adding friction to a user experience. Pretty much every app (if done well) is designed to reduce user friction, show only content and ads that are useful to the user. If a site starts asking a user to fill out a form to see ads or otherwise see poorly placed ads, I think it's likely that customers will just abandon the site and go somewhere else.
I don't think there is a lot of incentive for platforms to adopt a 3rd party ad network if they can avoid it. Adding extra friction is generally horrifying to platforms for the reasons I mentioned above. Having to revenue share with a third party is generally not that desirable once some semblance of scale is achieved, which is why major platforms generally build their own in house ads networks.
I think it could be possible to do this like @apm stated if everyone was better incentivized with the model. I think there would probably need to be some sort of arbitrage, where a user gets paid directly for their input where part of that compensation is revenue shared with the platform. How to do this in such a way that doesn't ad even more friction would be tricky. But eventually someone is paying for information related to the user, and if they pay the user directly I could see people being receptive to that. Perhaps this is sort of an reverse subscription model:
1. The basic "We show you generic ads model"
2. The subscription model "You pay us so that you don't see any ads"
3. The reverse subscription model "We pay you so that you see more targeted ads that you will like better and are more valuable to us"