From a strictly "just a user" point of view, if you don't feel an advantage, then there's likely no advantage for you. The trick is that you can't know until you have tried.
Abstractly, the arguments I can offer look like this:
- Linux is, as a rule of thumb, more efficient in using your hardware. Everything will feel snappier, and stay that way for longer (everyone knows that even the "good" versions of Windows tend to get sluggish over time, because innumerable legacy subsystems and structures inside the OS start to get clogged with various digital sediment)
- for many if not most contemporary programming languages, toolchains and frameworks the original work has been done on some version of Unix, and, very likely, Linux. So you are just closer to the source, so to speak. Where on Windows to use many of those tools you have to go through layers of emulation and backports, on Linux you would be using more native code and glue scripts etc, which would, again, translate into efficiency
- for the world of today's heavily networked software, the original Unix way of combining many small functional utilities, and the general ubiquity of "scripting" as an approach, is incredibly flexible and powerful. You can get something similar on Windows these days, using e.g. Powershell, but it is very, er, should I say, special and reminds me more of JCL from OS/360 than something I could use to quickly script deployment pipelines or configure complex systems from the command line.
But again, it comes down to one's context. For people who have spent their career using Visual Studio writing drivers for Windows in C++, that programming environment is probably much more convenient than Emacs, or vim, or any modern IDE on Linux.
P.S. One can probably make an argument in terms of price/performance as well. You can buy an expensive Macbook Pro or Surface laptop for your developer needs, or you can buy a Dell XPS Developer Edition (or find a cheap laptop you like that was made 5 years ago, for peanuts), and use Linux on it and get every bit of developer convenience out of it for much less money.