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    • During the first four centuries after Joshua, the Israelites did not occupy the city of Jerusalem. In fact, most of the land on which the city of Jerusalem sits was rural.

      On one of the mountains, there was a small enclave of Jebusites who were not Israelites.

      Soon after Saul's death, David decided to take that fortress. One of the accounts is found in 2 Samuel 5:6-8. In that account, it is recorded that the fortress was taken by Israelites climbing up a water shaft.

      A gentile fortress dating back to the time before Israel's conquest has been excavated in the part of Jerusalem known as the "City of David." It is called "The Spring Citadel" because it was located over the spring which the previous occupants used to draw water.

    • There is no "absolute proof" that the citadel which was uncovered by the archæologists is the same as the fortificaation raided by David's troops. It is in the place where the text states that such a raid took place, but the scientists have not proven that the text is true nor have they proven what they uncovered is related to the textual narrative.

      This is what is often called "circumstancial evidence".

    • Have I mentioned that at one time I filmed a documentary on Earthquakes and Archaeology in the Holy Land? It was for Stanford and aired on PBS in the early 90s.

      So I LOVE discoveries like this! Thanks for the pointer. I did it with my best friend, Amos Nur, a geophysics professor who grew up in Israel fascinated by all the ruins there.

      He wrote this book about it: