With respect, Chris, as I look at the graphic you posted, I see a rise in Type 2 diabetes in Native American and NonHispanic Blacks, but little or none in Non Hispanic Whites or Asian/Pacific Islanders. Or little change in All Races. I am certain you see it as well.
Correlations are not necessarily Causations either. Are wealthier folks healthier because they are wealthier, or are they wealthier because they are more more healthy or more health conscious? Or are the numbers just suspect, because the collectors of the numbers have unaware biases?
I suspect that economic class and education plays a bigger role than race in general overall health. Native Americans do seem to have more trouble with diabetes than most Europeans, that has been a known for many years. African Americans seem to have significantly higher high blood pressure issues than the general US populations.
When I was in Greenland I was amazed at the large displays of TV dinners for sale in their supermarkets, despite having a significant number of indigenous subsistence hunters and fishermen among the population. I doubt a regular diet of TV dinners is optimal for health, but I don't have data to prove that.
I find your graphic interesting but it leaves me with more questions than conclusions.